The Census report I linked in the last post has just partial tables and graphs. The Bureau has a backup spreadsheet online that contains data on each metro area. It includes a nifty feature that allows you to compare the population-weighted density profiles of two cities, or even the 2000 and 2010 profiles of the same city.
For example, here is a comparison of the density profiles of the Austin and Houston metropolitan areas, based on 2010 data. Basically, the Bureau calculated the weighted density of all census tracts within 0 miles of the city halls, the weighted density of all census tracts within 1 mile of the city halls, etc., and then plotted the points.
Basically, Houston is denser in the center, Austin is denser at the 1-mile mark (because of UT and West Campus, I'm sure), Houston is slightly denser at the 2-mile and 3-mile marks, and Houston is mostly much denser between the 4-mile and 27-mile marks.
Update: The Census Bureau has removed the Excel spreadsheet from the link. I can only speculate that it has something to do with the fact that the distance data looked wrong for some cities -- e.g., it showed weighted densities under 1,000 ppsm for Portland, OR between 4 and 14 miles from city hall, which is highly unlikely given the Portland's MSA weighted density of over 4,000 ppsm. Hopefully, they're cleaning up that data.